DOI: https://doi.org/10.21829/myb.2014.200147

Manglares: ecosistema centinela frente al cambio climático, Golfo de México

Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia, John W. Day, Robert R. Twilley, Richard H. Day

Resumen


Frente al desafío que enfrentan los sistemas económicos, sociales y ecológicos de la zona costera, se presentan evidencias de estructura funcional del sistema ecológico de manglar, revisitando la hipótesis planteada por Yáñez-Arancibia et al. (1998) y revisada más adelante por Yáñez-Arancibia et al. (2010): “los manglares como hábitat forestado crítico de la zona costera presentan respuestas de acomodación frente a la variabilidad ambiental que induce el cambio global, desarrollando un papel estructural y funcional clave en la estabilidad de la línea de costa, la persistencia de hábitats y biodiversidad, el metabolismo del ecosistema, reduciendo riesgos e incertidumbre para el desarrollo sustentable del uso de sus recursos”. Evidencias recientes indican que los manglares en el Golfo de México responden a esta hipótesis y -como respuesta al cambio climático y sus efectos en la zona costera- muestran un patrón ampliado y consistente de distribución, colonizando todo el Golfo hacia el norte, incluyendo la costa Atlántica de la Península de Florida, ante la oportunidad de la “tropicalización global del Golfo de México”. Más aún, actualmente las cuatro especies de manglar del Golfo de México ya se encuentran distribuidas en el Estado de Texas. Concluimos que el ecosistema de manglar es un “ecosistema-centinela” frente al impacto del cambio climático en el Golfo de México.


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