DOI: https://doi.org/10.21829/myb.2015.210424

Evaluation of chemical compositions, air-dry, preservation and workability of eight fastgrowing plantation species in Costa Rica

Róger Moya, Cynthia Salas, Alexander Berrocal, Juan Carlos Valverde

Resumen


Costa Rica has successfully planted various forestry species for wood production. However, the use of their wood is limited, due to poor knowledge about their chemical properties, air-dry, preserved and workability performance. The present study details information of these properties for the species: Alnus acuminata (Aa), Acacia mangium (Am), Bombacopsis quinata (Bq), Cupressus lusitanica (Cl), Swietenia macrophylla (Sm), Terminalia amazonia (Ta), Terminalia oblonga (To) and Vochysia guatemalensis (Vg). Among the results obtained, it was found that the wood of these species is in general slightly acidic, except Bq, which presented tendency to be basic. Different species show considerable variability in the content of holocellulose, lignin and extractable micronutrients. Regarding micronutrients, and in relation to other species it was found a high percentage in Vg. The use of boron as a preservative, may be applied in the 8 plantation species. The presence of heartwood in some species made it not possible to be preserved by the vacuum-pressure method, but the sapwood was possible to preserve in all species. The drying rate increased with increasing board thickness and drying time was different among species. The fastest drying rate was found in Ta and Am, followed by Sm, To, Aa and Cl with intermediate values and Vg with the slowest air-drying rate. Am, Bq, Cl, Sm and To present from excellent to good planing, sanding , drilling and molding, but Ta, Bq, Aa and Vg, especially Aa and Vg, in the workability operations were catalogued as poor or very poor quality.

Evaluación de la composición química, secado al aire, preservación y trabajabilidad de ocho especies de rápido crecimiento en plantación de Costa Rica

En Costa Rica se han plantado con éxito varias especies forestales para la producción de madera. No obstante, el uso de la madera es limitado debido al poco conocimiento acerca de sus propiedades químicas, secado al aire, preservado y trabajabilidad. En el presente estudio se detalla información de esas propiedades para las especies: Alnus acuminata (Aa), Acacia mangium (Am), Bombacopsis quinata (Bq), Cupressus lusitanica (Cl), Swietenia macrophylla (Sm), Terminalia amazonia (Ta), Terminalia oblonga (To) and Vochysia guatemalensis (Vg). Dentro de los resultados obtenidos, se encontró que la madera presenta un pH ligeramente ácido, a excepción de Bq, con tendencia a ser básica. Las diferentes especies muestran una considerable variabilidad en el contenido de holocelulosa, lignina, extraíbles y micronutrientes; con respecto a los micronutrientes, y en relación con las otras especies se encontró un alto porcentaje en Vg. El uso de boro como preservador, puede ser aplicado en las 8 especies de plantación. Las especies con presencia de duramen no fue posible preservarlas con el método vacío-presión; sin embargo, la albura sí es posible de preservar en todas las especies. El tiempo de secado incrementa con el incremento de espesor de la tabla y presenta variación entre especies. El menor tiempo de secado se encontró para Ta y Am, seguido por Sm, To, Aa y Cl, con valores intermedios y Vg con el secado al aire más lento. Am, Bq, Cl, Sm y To presentan de excelentes a buenas propiedades de cepillado, lijado, taladrado y moldurado, pero el resto de las especies (Ta, Bq, Aa and Vg), en especial para Aa y Vg, en las operaciones de trabajabilidad son catalogadas como de mala o muy pobre calidad.


Palabras clave


América central; madera comercial; especies tropicales; variación de propiedades

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Referencias


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Madera y Bosques, Vol. 24, Núm. 1, Primavera 2018, es una publicación cuatrimestral editada por el Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver. C.P. 91070, Tel. (228) 842-1835, http://myb.ojs.inecol.mx/, mabosque@inecol.mx. Editor responsable: Raymundo Dávalos Sotelo. Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo 04-2016-062312190600-203, ISSN electrónico 2448-7597, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este Número, Reyna Paula Zárate Morales, Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver., C.P. 91070, fecha de última modificación, 25 de abril de 2018.

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