Wood preservation using natural products

Rubén Francisco González-Laredo, Martha Rosales-Castro, Nuria Elizabeth Rocha-Guzmán, José Alberto Gallegos-Infante, Martha Rocío Moreno-Jiménez, Joseph J. Karchesy


It is a current concern in the wood preservation field to avoid the use of toxic chemicals and develop new technologies based on low environmental impact agents and sustainable principles. Under this expectation, an intended state-of-the-art is introduced on the application of natural products such as traditional tar and wood oils as well as tannins and plant extracts. A particular revision to heartwood chemical components is offered. The combined methods of using natural and chemical components are reviewed, considering as outstanding the mixtures of natural organic constituents with cooper and boron salts that seem to be under encouraging experimentation. Fungicides and anti-termite applications are commented as well the leaching problem of inorganic salts. Chemical modification of wood structure through the formation of adducts and the treatment with nanomaterials are promising tools that will change the actual view and performance of wood preservation techniques.

Preservación de la madera usando productos naturales

Una de las prioridades actuales en el campo de la preservación de madera es evitar el uso de materiales tóxicos, desarrollando nuevas tecnologías fundamentadas en principios sustentables y empleando agentes de bajo impacto ambiental. Con esta expectativa se plantea una revisión del estado del arte sobre la aplicación de productos naturales, tales como taninos, alquitrán, aceites y extractos vegetales. Se presenta en particular una revisión sobre los componentes químicos contenidos en el duramen de maderas naturalmente resistentes. Se analizan los métodos combinados de ingredientes naturales y químicos, resaltando las mezclas de componentes naturales orgánicos con sales de cobre y boro que parecen representar una opción experimental confiable. Se comentan también las aplicaciones fungicidas y anti termitas, así como los problemas de lixiviación de sales inorgánicas. Opciones como la modificación química de la madera vía la formación de aductos y por tratamiento con nanomateriales son procesos promisorios que cambiaran eventualmente la manera de ver y aplicar la tecnología actual de preservación de maderas.

Palabras clave

corteza; biocidas; extracto; fungicidas; aceite; compuestos fenólicos; taninos; termitas

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Madera y Bosques, Vol. 24, Núm. 1, Primavera 2018, es una publicación cuatrimestral editada por el Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver. C.P. 91070, Tel. (228) 842-1835,, Editor responsable: Raymundo Dávalos Sotelo. Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo 04-2016-062312190600-203, ISSN electrónico 2448-7597, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este Número, Reyna Paula Zárate Morales, Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver., C.P. 91070, fecha de última modificación, 25 de abril de 2018.

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