Bioenergía a partir de residuos forestales y de madera

Neydeli Ayala-Mendivil, Georgina Sandoval


Una de las prioridades del mundo actual es la generación de bioenergéticos sustentables y amigables con el medio ambiente, para lo cual son necesarios cambios en los modelos de producción y utilización de energía. El uso de residuos forestales como una fuente de biomasa para la generación de bioenergéticos representa una alternativa potencial, ya que genera un biocombustible menos contaminante en comparación con los de origen fósil. Además, mientras que el calor y la electricidad pueden ser generados por otras alternativas renovables como viento, sol y agua, la producción de combustibles y la síntesis de productos químicos requieren transformar la biomasa. La elección de la estrategia de conversión depende del tipo, propiedades y cantidad de la biomasa disponible, de los requerimientos de uso, así como de los estándares ambientales y condiciones económicas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es describir los diferentes procesos a través de los cuales se puede obtener energía a partir de residuos de biomasa forestal, así como el potencial que tienen estos residuos en la producción de los diferentes tipos de bioenergéticos. Asimismo, se describen los desafíos y problemas que aún siguen sin resolver, como lo son la recolección de residuos, escalamiento y costos de producción.

Palabras clave

biomasa; procesos bioquímicos; procesos termoquímicos

Texto completo:



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Madera y Bosques, Vol. 24, Núm. 1, Primavera 2018, es una publicación cuatrimestral editada por el Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver. C.P. 91070, Tel. (228) 842-1835,, Editor responsable: Raymundo Dávalos Sotelo. Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo 04-2016-062312190600-203, ISSN electrónico 2448-7597, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este Número, Reyna Paula Zárate Morales, Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver., C.P. 91070, fecha de última modificación, 25 de abril de 2018.

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