DOI: https://doi.org/10.21829/myb.2019.2531828

La arquitectura hidráulica de las plantas vasculares terrestres, una revisión

Gilberto Alemán-Sancheschúlz, Eloy Solano, Teresa Terrazas, Jorge López-Portillo

Resumen


El transporte de agua en las plantas vasculares terrestres es pasivo y está determinado por la transpiración o pérdida de agua a través de las hojas. La teoría de la cohesión-tensión es la más aceptada para explicar este proceso, y se complementa con la analogía de la ley de Ohm, que analiza el flujo del agua como un proceso catenario. La resistencia al estrés hídrico y a la cavitación está fuertemente asociada con las características anatómicas del xilema, de las punteaduras intervasculares y de sus membranas, estas últimas se alteran en función de las propiedades químicas de la solución acuosa que fluye a través de ellas. Con base en estas premisas, esta revisión aborda el fenómeno del ascenso del agua en las plantas vasculares terrestres y analiza los conceptos, las teorías y los métodos más usados en el estudio de la arquitectura hidráulica. Además, señala las diferencias en la estructura del xilema y el transporte del agua entre dicotiledóneas y monocotiledóneas.


Palabras clave


cavitación; cohesión-tensión; estrés hídrico; potencial hídrico; transporte de agua en las plantas; xilema

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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Madera y Bosques, Vol. 26, Núm. 2, Verano2020, es una publicación cuatrimestral editada por el Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver. C.P. 91070, Tel. (228) 842-1835, http://myb.ojs.inecol.mx/, madera.bosques@inecol.mx. Editor responsable: Raymundo Dávalos Sotelo. Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo 04-2016-062312190600-203, ISSN electrónico 2448-7597, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este Número, Reyna Paula Zárate Morales, Carretera antigua a Coatepec, 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Ver., C.P. 91070, fecha de última modificación, 12 de mayo de 2020.

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