Lignina: composición, síntesis y evolución

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21829/myb.2021.2722137

Palabras clave:

lignina, convergencia evolutiva, siringilo, guayacilo, diversificación

Resumen

La lignina es una de las principales estructuras de la pared celular de las plantas y varía en su composición entre los grupos taxonómicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue revisar la estructura de la lignina, el proceso de lignificación y las propuestas de patrones de evolución de esta. Para esto se revisó la literatura existente, cada punto se analizó y explicó para finalmente proponer una hipótesis evolutiva del proceso de lignificación en angiospermas. La lignina está compuesta por diversos monómeros y polímeros, su biosíntesis ocurre en plastidios y retículo endoplasmático, para posteriormente polimerizarse mediante diferentes grupos enzimáticos en la pared celular, donde ocurre el proceso de lignificación cooperativa. Durante la evolución de las plantas se desarrollaron los sistemas genéticos y enzimáticos para la biosíntesis de la lignina. Los dos principales tipos de lignina que se acumulan en los elementos traqueales de las plantas son lignina de tipo guayacilo y lignina de tipo siringilo/guayacilo. La presencia de siringilo en especies de Isoetes, Selaginella, Lycophyta y algas por convergencia evolutiva confirió resistencia a patógenos y rayos UV. La presencia de enzimas promiscuas catalíticamente funcionales propició la aparición de lignina, suberina y cutina, además de que la diversificación anatómica y química de la pared celular en angiospermas favorecieron su distribución en diferentes condiciones ambientales.

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Biografía del autor/a

Agustín Maceda,

Colegio de Postgraduados

Postgrado en Ciencias Agrícolas

Programa de Botánica

Marcos Soto-Hernández,

Colegio de Postgraduados

Postgrado en Ciencias Agrícolas

Programa de Botánica

Cecilia B. Peña-Valdivia,

Colegio de Postgraduados

Postgrado en Ciencias Agrícolas

Programa de Botánica

Carlos Trejo,

Colegio de Postgraduados

Postgrado en Ciencias Agrícolas

Programa de Botánica

Teresa Terrazas,

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Instituto de Biología

Citas

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2021-12-22

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Maceda, A., Soto-Hernández, M., Peña-Valdivia, C. B., Trejo, C., & Terrazas, T. (2021). Lignina: composición, síntesis y evolución. Madera Y Bosques, 27(2), e2722137. https://doi.org/10.21829/myb.2021.2722137
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