Vol. 28 Núm. 1 (2022): Primavera 2022
Revisiones bibliográficas

Tendencias metodológicas para la implementación de sistemas agroforestales en el marco del desarrollo sustentable: una revisión

Marisol Rojas Pardo
Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas.
Biografía
Julio Beltrán Vargas
Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas
Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía
Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas

Publicado 2022-03-17

Palabras clave

  • agroforestal,
  • desarrollo rural,
  • desarrollo sustentable,
  • prácticas agrícolas,
  • uso del suelo
  • agroforestry,
  • rural development,
  • sustainable development,
  • agricultural practices,
  • land use

Resumen

El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer las tendencias metodológicas en investigaciones sobre sistemas agroforestales (SAF), identificando dimensiones, enfoques, diseños y variables ambientales que se implementan en su desarrollo. Se empleo la revisión sistemática de literatura de estudios mundiales publicados entre el 2000 y 2020. Mediante frecuencia de citación, se estimó qué dimensiones, enfoques, diseños y variables ambientales se emplearon principalmente en los estudios. El análisis Chi-cuadrado identificó la asociación significativa entre diseños, dimensiones y variables ambientales; y se aplicó un análisis clúster no jerárquico para establecer la distribución de investigaciones con respecto a zonas geográficas, dimensiones y diseños. Se detectaron cuatro dimensiones de investigación: ecológica, social, económica y sistémica. Los enfoques con mayor citación en los estudios fueron: uso del suelo (0.823), manejo del Bosque (0.784), desarrollo comunitario (0.667), conservación de la biodiversidad (0.604), desarrollo rural (0.585) y cambio climático (0.680). Los diseños agroforestales se agruparon en secuenciales (70.0%) y simultáneos (90.0%) y las variables ambiéntales: edafológicas (84,0%), bióticas (70,0%) y socioeconómicas (60,0%) fueron mayormente citadas en las investigaciones. El análisis clúster determino que la dimensión sistémica se desarrolló en África (50.0%), Asia (26.92%) y Europa (23.07%), y la ecológica en América (50.0%) y Asia (30.01%); la social en África (33.3%) y la económica en Asia (10,2%). En conclusión, la dimensión sistémica predominó en la revisión resaltando el carácter sustentable de los SAF. Además, los enfoques, diseños y variables con mayor citación responden a las necesidades productivas de las comunidades y a las características ecológicas de los ecosistemas donde se gestionan estas tecnologías.

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