Vol. 27 Núm. 1 (2021): Primavera 2021
Revisiones bibliográficas

Estudios de conectividad del paisaje en América Latina: retos de investigación

Edgar G. Leija
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Biografía
Manuel E. Mendoza
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Biografía

Publicado 2021-03-19

Palabras clave

  • buscadores de internet,
  • flujos ecológicos,
  • hábitat,
  • Latinoamérica,
  • revisión bibliográfica
  • internet search engines,
  • ecologic flows,
  • habitat,
  • Latin America,
  • literature review

Resumen

Los estudios enfocados a la conectividad del paisaje son actualmente claves para la planificación de la conservación de los ecosistemas; sin embargo, sólo un número limitado de estudios proporcionan datos empíricos sobre los beneficios de la conectividad en la conservación de los ecosistemas terrestres. En este estudio, se analizaron las publicaciones sobre estudios de conectividad particularmente para cuatro tópicos en América Latina de 2000 a 2018, para brindar una visión del estado actual, retos y avances del conocimiento. La búsqueda se realizó en diferentes bases de datos, las cuales se seleccionaron 217 trabajos. Todas las referencias seleccionadas fueron revisadas y clasificadas considerando: a) año de publicación, b) tipo de investigación, c) país de América Latina donde se realizó, d) área de estudio, e) tipo de ecosistema y f) objetivos de la investigación. Los resultados muestran que la mayor parte de los estudios de conectividad se realizan considerando los tópicos: a) de planificación para la restauración, b) modelado y planificación de la cobertura vegetal/uso del suelo y c) servicios ecosistémicos. Sin embargo, los trabajos publicados sobre conectividad y cambio climático han sido escasos. También fue posible identificar publicaciones que abordaron dos tópicos simultáneamente: a) estudios de modelado y planificación de la cobertura vegetal/uso del suelo con estudios de la planificación para la restauración, b) estudios en servicios ecosistémicos con cambio climático, and c) planificación para la restauración con cambio climático. Sin embargo, existe la necesidad de incrementar sustancialmente las investigaciones en los temas de conectividad en América latina.

Citas

  1. Armesto, J. J., Bautista, S., Del Val, E., Ferguson, B., García, X., Gaxiola, A., Godinez-Álvarez, H., Gann, G., López-Barrera, F., Manson, R., Núñez-Ávila, M., Ortiz-Arrona, C., Tognetti, P., & Williams-Linera, G. (2007). Towards in ecological restoration network: Reversing land degradation in Latin America. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(4), 1-4. doi: 10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[w1:TAERNR]2.0.CO;2
  2. Baguette, M., & Dyck, H. V. (2007). Landscape connectivity and animal behavior: Functional grain as a key determinant for dispersal. Landscape Ecology, 22, 1117–1129. doi: 10.1007/s10980-007-9108-4
  3. Banco Mundial. (2001). Proyecto Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano. México: Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe.
  4. Beier, P., Majka, D. R., & Spencer, W. D. (2008). Forks in the road: Choices in procedures for designing wildland linkages. Conservation Biology, 22(4), 836–851. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00942.x
  5. Bélisle, M. (2005). Measuring Landscape Connectivity: The challenge of behavioral landscape ecology. Ecology, 86(8), 1988–1995. doi: 10.1890/04-0923
  6. Birch, J. C., Newton, A. C., Aquino, C. A., Cantarello, E., Echeverría, C., Kitzberger, T., & Garavito, N. T. (2010). Cost‐effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services. PNAS, 107(50), 21925–21930. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1003369107
  7. Bonfil, C., Fernández y Fernández, D., & González-Espinosa, M. (2015). Un análisis preliminar del estado actual de los estudios de restauración ecológica en México. En B. Brown (Ed.), Tzintzuntzan, el lugar de los colibríes - otra vez / Tzintzuntzan, place of the hummingbirds - again. Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Alfredo Zalce, Morelia (p. 28-39). Morelia, Michoacán: Editorial Estampas.
  8. Brancalion, P. H. S., & van Melis, J. (2017). On the need for innovation in ecological restoration. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 102(2), 227–236. doi: 10.3417/2016034
  9. Brown, J. L., & Yoder, A. D. (2015). Shifting ranges and conservation challenges for lemurs in the face of climate change. Ecology and Evolution, 5(6), 1131-1142. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1418
  10. Carabias, J., Arriaga, V., & Cervantes-Gutiérrez, V. (2007). Las políticas públicas de la restauración ambiental en México: limitantes, avances, rezagos y retos. Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México, 80 (Suplemento), 85-100. doi: 10.17129/botsci.1759
  11. Cardillo, M., Purvis, A., Bielby, J., Mace, G.M., Sechrest, W., & Gittleman, J. L. (2004). Human population density and extinction risk in the world’s carnivores. PLoS Biology, 2(7), 909–914. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020197
  12. Cardoso da Silva, J. M., Leal, I. R., & Tabarelli, M. (2018). Caatinga: The largest tropical dry forest region in South America. Springer International Publishing. 482 pp. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-68339-3
  13. Castilho, C. S., Hackbart, V. C. S., Pivello, V. R., & dos Santos, R. F. (2015). Evaluating landscape connectivity for puma concolor and panthera onca among atlantic forest protected areas. Environmental Management, 55(6), 1377–1389. doi: 10.1007/s00267-015-0463-7
  14. Castillo, L. S., Correa-Ayram, C., Serrano, F., Chalán, L., Sánchez, F., More, A., Franco, O., Álvarez, J., Blomfield, H., Aguilera, V., Rivadeneira, C., Papadakis, J., Cárdenas, J. J., Morón, V., Yerena, E., Kroner, R. G., Matallana, C., Corzo, G., Areiza, A., González, R., & Godinez, O. (2019). Cobertura de áreas protegidas y conectividad ecorregional en los países andinos tropicales. III Congreso de Áreas Protegidas de Latinoamérica y el Caribe.
  15. Ceccon, E., Barrera‐Cataño, J. I., Aronson, J., & Martínez‐Garza, C. (2015). The socioecological complexity of ecological restoration in Mexico. Restoration Ecology, 23(4), 331-336. doi: 10.1111/rec.12228
  16. Chang, E., Echeverría, J., & Miller y Tunstall, D. (2001). Acciones catalíticas para implementar el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano. World Resources Institute, Washington DC.
  17. Ciarniello, L. M., Boyce, M. S., Seip, D. R., & Heard, D. C. (2007). Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. Ecological Applications, 17(5), 1424–1440. doi: 10.1890/06-1100.1
  18. Clark, M., & Tilman, D. (2017). Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice. Environmental Research Letters, 12(6), 064016. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa6cd5
  19. Clerici, N., Salazar, C., Pardo-Díaz, C., Jiggins, C. R., & Linares, M. (2018). Peace in Colombia is a critical moment for Neotropical connectivity and conservation: Save the northern Andes-Amazon biodiversity bridge. Conservation Letters, 12(1), e12594. doi: 10.1111/conl.12594
  20. Convention on Biological Diversity [CDB] (2010). Decision UNEP/CBD/COP/ DEC/X/2. Adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its Tenth Meeting. Recuperado de https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=12268
  21. Corlett, R.T. (2015). The anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 30(1), 36–41. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2014.10.007.
  22. Correa-Ayram, C. A., Mendoza, M. E., Etter, A., & Pérez-Salicrup, D. R. (2017). Anthropogenic impact on habitat connectivity: a multidimensional human footprint index evaluated in a highly biodiverse landscape of Mexico. Ecological Indicators, 72, 895-909. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.09.007
  23. Correa-Ayram, C., Mendoza, M. E., Etter, A., & Pérez-Salicrup, D. R. (2016). Habitat connectivity in biodiversity conservation: a review of recent studies and applications. Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, 40(1), 7-37. doi: 10.1177/0309133315598713
  24. Correa-Ayram, C., Mendoza, M. E., Pérez-Salicrup, D. R., & López Granados, E. (2014) Identifying potential conservation areas in the Cuitzeo lake basin, Mexico by multitemporal analysis of landscape connectivity. Journal for Nature Conservation, 22(5), 424-435. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2014.03.010
  25. Correa-Ayram, C.A., Etter, A., Díaz-Timoté, J., Rodríguez-Buriticá, S., Ramírez, W., & Corzo, G. (2020). Spatiotemporal evaluation of the human footprint in Colombia: Four decades of anthropic impact in highly biodiverse ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 117, 106630. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106630
  26. Coulon, A., Cosson, J. F., Angibault, J. M., Cargnelutti, B., Galan, M., Morellet, N., Petit, E., Aulagnier, S., & Hewison, A. J. M. (2004). Landscape connectivity influences gene flow in a roe deer population inhabiting a fragmented landscape: an individual‐based approach. Molecular Ecology, 13(9), 2841–2850. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02253.x
  27. Cushman, S.A. (2006). Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: A review and prospectus. Biology and Conservation. 128(2), 231–240. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.031
  28. DeFries, R. S., Rudel, T., Uriarte, M., & Hansen, M. (2010). Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty‐first century. Nature Geoscience, 3, 178–181. doi: 10.1038/NGEO756
  29. Diniz, M. F., Machado, R. B., Bispo, A. A., & Brito, D. (2017). Identifying key sites for connecting jaguar populations in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Animal Conservation, 21(3), 201-210. doi: 10.1111/acv.12367
  30. Elston, D. A., & Bucland, S. T. (1993). Statistical modelling of regional GIS data and overview. Ecological Modelling, 67(1), 81-102.
  31. Etterson, J. R., & Mazer, S. J. (2016). How climate change affects plants' sex lives. Science, 353(6294), 32–33. doi: 10.1126/science.aag1624
  32. Eva, H. D., Achard, F., Beuchle, R., De Miranda, E., Carboni, S., Seliger, R., Vollmar, Michael., Holler, W. A., Oshiro, O. T., Barrena-Arroyo, V., & Gallego, J. (2012). Forest Cover Changes in Tropical South and Central America from 1990 to 2005 and Related Carbon Emissions and Removals. Remote Sensing, 4(5), 1369-1391. doi: 10.3390/rs4051369
  33. Fazey, I., Fischer, J. & Lindenmayer, D. B. (2005). What do conservation biologists publish? Biological Conservation, 124(1), 63–73. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.013
  34. Foley, J.A., DeFries, R., Asner, G. P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S. R., Stuart, F., Chapin., Coe, M. T., Daily, G. C., Gibbs, H. K., Helkowski, J. H., Holloway, T., Howard, E. A., Kucharick, C. J., Monfreda, C., Patz, J. A., Prentice, I. C., Ramankutty, N., & Synder, P.K. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309(5734), 570–74. doi: 10.1126/science.1111772
  35. Forman, R. T. T. (1994). Land mosaics, the ecology of landscapes and regions. University Press, Cambridge.
  36. FRA [Evaluación de los Recursos Forestales Mundiales]. (2015). Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura. Compendio de datos. Roma. pp 253.
  37. Furtado, C. (2007). A economia latino-americana: formacao histórica e problemas contemporaneous. Companhia das Letras, Sao Paulo.
  38. Garcia, R. A., Cabeza, M., Rabhek, C., & Araujo, M. B. (2014). Multiple dimensions of climate change and their implications for biodiversity. Science, 344(6183), 6183; 1247579. doi: 10.1126/science.1247579.
  39. Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2001). What drives tropical deforestation? A meta-analysis of proximate and underlying causes of deforestation based on subnational case study evidence. LUCC Report Series, 4, 116. https://www.pik-potsdam.de/members/cramer/teaching/0607/
  40. Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2002). Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation. Bioscience 52(2), 143–150. doi: 10.1641/0006-35682
  41. Gilbert-Norton, L., Wilson, R., Stevens, J. R., & Beard, K. H. (2010). A meta-analytic review of corridor effectiveness. Conservation Biology, 24(3), 60–668. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01450.x
  42. Groves, C. R., Game, E. T., Anderson, M. G., Cross, M., Enquist, C., Ferdaña, Z., Girvetz, E., Gondor, A., Hall, K. R., Higgins, J., Marshall, R., Popper, K., Schill, S., & Shafer, S. L. (2012). Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 1651–1671. doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0269-3.
  43. Haila, Y. (2002). A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology. Ecological Applications, 12(2), 321–334. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761
  44. Hannah, L., Midgley, G. F., & Millar, D. (2002). Climate change-integrated conservation strategies. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(6), 485-495.
  45. Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. V., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S. A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S. V., Goetz, J., Loveland, T. R., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L., Justice, C. O., & Townshend, J. R.G. (2013). High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science, 342(6160), 850–853. doi: 10.1126/science.1244693
  46. Hardt, E., Borgomeo, E., dos Santos, R. F., Pinto, G. L. F., Metzger, J. P., & Sparovek, G. (2015). Does certification improve biodiversity conservation in Brazilian coffee farms. Forest Ecology and Management, 357, 181-194. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.021
  47. Harrison, P. A., Vandewalle, M., Sykes, M. T., Berry, P. M., Bugter, R., de Bello, F., Feld, C. K., Grandin, U., Harrington, R., Haslett, J. R., Jongman, R. H. G., Luck, G.W., Martins da Silva, P., Moora, M., Settele, J., Sousa, J. P., & Zobel, M. (2010). Identifying and prioritising services in European terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(10), 2791-2821. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9789-x
  48. Hatfield, J. H., Orme, C. D., & Banks-Leite, C. (2018). Using functional connectivity to predict potential meta-population sizes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, 16(4), 215–220. doi: 10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.004
  49. Hill, J. K., Griffiths, H. M., & Thomas, C. D. (2011). Climate change and evolutionary adaptations at species' range margins. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 143–159. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-120709-144746
  50. Hobbs, R. J., & Yates, C. J. (2003). Impacts of ecosystem fragmentation on plant populations: generalizing the idiosyncratic. Australian Journal of Botany, 51, 471–488. doi: 10.1071/BT03037
  51. Hoffmann, A. A., & Sgro, C. M. (2011). Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature, 470, 479– 485. doi: 10.1038/nature09670
  52. Höglund, J. (2009). Evolutionary conservation genetics. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  53. Horta, M. B., Bhakti, T., Cordeiro, P.F., Carvalho-Ribeiro, A. M., Fernandes, G. W., & Goulart, F. F. (2018). Functional connectivity in urban landscapes promoted by Ramphastos toco (Toco Toucan) and its implications for policy formulation. Urban Ecosystems, 21, 1097–1111. doi: 10.1007/s11252-018-0789-z
  54. Imbach, P. A., Locatelli, B., Molina, L. G., Clais, P., & Leadley, P. W. (2013). Climate change and plant dispersal along corridors in fragmented landscapes of Mesoamerica. Ecology and Evolution, 3(9), 2917-2932. doi: 10.1002/ece3.672
  55. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]. (2007). Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC.
  56. Junhu, S., Achyut, A., Ibrahim, M., Hegab, U., Babu, S., Sean, C.P., Coogan, S., Sathyakumar, M., Dalannast, Z., Dou, Y., Suo, X., Dabu, H., Fu, L., & Wu, W. (2018). Decreasing brown bear (Ursus arctos) habitat due to climate change in Central Asia and the Asian Highlands. Ecology and Evolution. 8(23), 11887-11899. doi: 10.1002/ece3.4645
  57. Kacowicz, A. M. (2008). Latin America and the world: Globalization, regionalization, and fragmentation. Nueva Sociedad, 214, 1–11.
  58. Kim, D. H., Sexton, J. O., & Townshend, J. R. (2015). Accelerated deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(9), 495–3501. doi: 10.1002/2014GL062777
  59. Krosby, M., Tewksbury, J., Haddad, N. M., & Hoekstra, J. (2010). Ecological connectivity for a changing climate. Conservation Biology, 24(6), 1686-1689. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01585.x
  60. Laestadius, L., Maginnis, S., Minnemeyer, S., Potapov, P., Saint‐Laurent, C., & Sizer, N. (2011). Mapping opportunities for forest landscape restoration. Unasylva, 62, 238.
  61. Lambin, E.F. 1994. Modelling deforestation process a review. European Commission, Institute for Remote Sensing Applications. European Space Agency, 113 pp.
  62. Lambin, E. F. (1997). Modeling and monitoring land-cover change processes in tropical regions. Progress in Physical Geography, 21(3), 375-393. doi: 10.1177/030913339702100303
  63. Lambin, E. F., Geist, H. J., & Lepers, E. (2003). Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28, 205–241. doi: 10.1146/annurev.energy.28.050302.105459
  64. Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Geist, H. J., Agbola, S. B., Angelsen. A., Bruce, J. W., Coomes, O. T., Dirzo, R., Fischerh, G., Folke, C., George, P. S., Homewood, K., Imbernon, J., Leemans, R., Li, X., Moran, E. F., Mortimore, M., Ramakrishnan, P. S., Richards, J. F., Skanes, H., Steffen, W., Stone, G. D., Svedin, U., Veldkamp, T. A., Vogel, C., & Xu, J. (2001). The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change, 11(4), 261–269. doi: 10.1016/S0959-3780(01)00007-3
  65. Laurance, W. F., Camargo, J. L., Luizão, R. C., Laurance, S. G., Pimm, S. L., Bruna, E. M., Stouffer, P. C., Williamson, G. B., Ben, J., Tez-Malvido, H. L., Vasconcelos, K. S., Van-Houtan, C. E., Zartman, S. A., Boyle, R. K., Didham, A., Andrade., & Lovejoy, T.E. (2011). The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: a 32‐year investigation. Biological Conservation, 144(1), 56–67. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.09.021
  66. Lavelle, P., Rodríguez, N., Arguello, O., Berna, J., Botero, C., Chaparro, P., Gómez, Y., Gutiérrez, A., Hurtado, M., Loaiza, S., Pullido, S. X., Rodríguez, E., Sanabria, C., Velásquez, E., & Fonte, S.J. (2014). Soil ecosystem services and land use in the rapidly changing Orinoco River Basin of Colombia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 185, 106-117. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.12.020
  67. Leidner, A.K., & Haddad, N.M. (2011). Combining measures of dispersal to identify conservation strategies in fragmented landscapes. Conservation Biology, 25(5), 1022–1031. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01720.x.
  68. Leija, E. G., Reyes-Hernández, H., Reyes-Pérez, O., Flores-Flores, J. L., & Sahagún, F. J. S. (2016). Cambios en la cubierta vegetal, usos de la tierra y escenarios futuros en la región costera del estado de Oaxaca, México. Madera y Bosques 22(1), 125–140. doi: 10.21829/myb.2016.221481
  69. Leija, E.G., & Pavón, N. P. (2017). The northernmost tropical rain forest of the Americas: endangered by agriculture expansion. Tropical Ecology, 58(3), 641-652.
  70. Leija, E.G., Valenzuela-Ceballos, S. I., Valencia-Castro, M., Jiménez-González, G., Castañeda-Gaytán, G., Reyes-Hernández, H., Mendoza, M. E. (2020). Análisis de cambio en la cobertura vegetal y uso del suelo en la región centro-norte de México. El caso de la cuenca baja del río Nazas. Ecosistemas, 29(1), 1826. doi: 10.7818/ECOS.1826
  71. Lindenmayer, D., & Fischer, J. (2006). Fragmentación del hábitat y cambio de paisaje: una síntesis ecológica y de conservación. Washington, DC, EE. UU: Island Press.
  72. Lindenmayer, D., S. Cunningham, & Young, A. (2012). Perspectives on land use intensification and biodiversity conservation. En D. Lindenmayer, S. Cunningham, & A. Young (Eds.), Land use intensification: effects on agriculture, biodiversity and ecological processes (pp. 123–134), Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.
  73. Liu, F., McShea, W., Garshelis, D., Zhu, X., Wang, D., Gong, J., & Chen, Y. (2009). Spatial distribution as a measure of conservation needs: an example with Asiatic black bears in south‐western China. Diversity and Distributions, 15(4), 649– 659. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00571.x
  74. Loyola, R. D., Lemes, P., Faleiro, F. V., Trindade-Filho, J., & Machado, R. B. (2012). Severe loss of suitable climatic conditions for marsupial species in Brazil: Challenges and opportunities for conservation. PloS One, 7(9), e46257 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046257
  75. Luque, S., Saura, S., & Fortin, M. J. (2012). Landscape connectivity analysis for conservation: Insights from combining new methods with ecological and genetic data. Landscape Ecology, 27(2), 153–157. doi: 10.1007/s10980-011-9700-5
  76. Martínez‐Ramos, M., Pingarroni, A., Rodríguez‐Velázquez, J., Toledo‐Chelala, L., Zermeño‐Hernández, I. & Bongers, F. (2016). Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human‐modified tropical landscapes. Biotropica, 48(6), 745-757. doi: 10.1111/btp.12382
  77. Martín-López, B., Iniesta-Arandia, I., García-Llorente, M., Palomo, I., Casado-Arzuaga, I., Amo, D. G., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Oteros-Rozas, E., Palacios-Agundez, I., Willaarts, B., González, J. A., Santos-Martín, F., Onaindia, M., López-Santiago, C., & Montes, C. (2012a). Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences. PloS One, 7(6), e38970. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038970
  78. Martins, J. H., Camanho, A. S. & Gaspar, M. B. (2012). A review of the application of driving forces–pressure–state–impact–response framework to fisheries management. Ocean Coastal Manage, 69, 273–281. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.07.029
  79. Maskell, L. C., Crowe, A., Dunbar, M. J., Emmett, B., Henrys, P., Keith, A. M., Norton, L. R., Scholefield, P., Clark, D. B., Simpson, I. C., & Smart, S. M. (2013). Exploring the ecological constraints to multiple ecosystem service delivery and biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(3), 561-571. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12085
  80. Mathieu, J., Grimaldi, M., Jouquet, P., Rouland, C., Lavelle, P., Desjardins, T., & Rossi, J. P. (2009). Spatial patterns of grasses influence soil macrofauna biodiversity in Amazonian pastures. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(3), 586-593. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.12.020
  81. McRae, B. H., Hall, S. A., & Beier, P. (2012). Where to restore ecological connectivity? Detecting barriers and quantifying restoration benefits. PloS One, 7(12), e52604 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052604
  82. Mech, S. G., & Hallet, J. G. (2001). Evaluating the effectiveness of corridors: a genetic approach. Conservation Biology, 15(2), 467-474.
  83. Mendoza, M. E., Lopéz, G. E., Geneletti, D., Pérez-Salicrup, D. R., & Salinas, V. (2011). Analysing land cover and land use change processes at watershed level: A multitemporal study in the Lake Cuitzeo Watershed, Mexico (1975-2003). Applied Geograpghy. 31(1), 237-250. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.05.010
  84. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment [MEA]. (2005). Ecosystem and human well-being: A framework for assessment. 4 volumes. Island Press. Washington. D.C, EE. UU.
  85. Mitchell, M. E., Bennett, E. & Gonzalez, A. (2013). Linking landscape connectivity and ecosystem service provision: current knowledge and research gaps. Ecosystems, 16(5), 894– 908. doi: 10.1007/s10021-013-9647-2
  86. Mony, C., Abadie, J., Gil-Tena, A., Burel, F., & Ernoult, A. (2018). Effects of connectivity on animal‐dispersed forest plant communities in agriculture‐dominated landscapes. Journal of Vegetation Science, 29(2), 167–178. doi: 10.1111/jvs.12606
  87. Mora, C., Frazier, A. G., Longman, R. J., Dacks, R. S., Walton, M. M., Tong, E. J., Sanchez, J. J., Kaiser, L. R., Stender, Y. O., Anderson, J. M., Christine, M., Fernandez-Silva, A. I., Louise, M., Giuseffi., & T. W. Giambelluca (2013). The projected timing of climate departure from recent variability. Nature, 502, 183–187. doi: 10.1038/nature12540
  88. Moraes, A. M., Grativol, A. D., De Vleeschouwer, K. M., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Raboy, B. E., Oliveira, L.C., Dietz, J. M., & Galbusera, P. H. A. (2018). Population genetic structure of an endangered endemic primate (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in a highly fragmented Atlantic coastal rain forest. Folia Primatologica, 89, 365–381. doi: 10.1159/000492176
  89. Morera, C., Pintó, J., & Romero, M. (2007). Paisaje, procesos de fragmentación y redes ecológicas: aproximación conceptual. En O. Chassot & C. Morera. (Eds.), Corredores biológicos: acercamiento conceptual y experiencia en América (pp. 11-47). San José, Costa Rica: Imprenta Nacional.
  90. Múgica, M., De Lucio, J. V., Martínez, C., Sastre, P., Atauri, J.A., & Montes, C. (2002). Integración territorial de espacios naturales protegidos y conectividad ecológica en paisajes mediterráneos. Servicios Ambientales Consejería de Medio Ambiente Junta de Andalucía, España.
  91. Newbold, T., Hudson, L. N., Hill, S. L., Contu, S., Lysenko, I., Senior, R. A., Börger, L., Bennett, D. J., Choimes, A., Collen, B., Day, J., De Palma, A., Díaz, S., Echeverria-Londoño, S., Edgar, M. J., Fieldman, A., Garon, M., Harrison, M. L., Alhusseini, T., Ingram, D. J., Itescu, Y., Kattge, J., Kemp, V., Krikpatrick, L., Kleyer, M., Correia, D. L., Martin, C. D., Meiri, S., Novosolov, M., Pan, Y., Phillips, H. R., Purves, D. W., Robinson, A., Simpson, J., Tuck, S. L., Weiher, E., White, H. J., Ewers, R. M., Mace, G. M., Scharlemann, J. P., & Purvis, A. (2015). Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity. Nature, 520, 45–50. doi: 10.1038/nature14324
  92. Oliveira, U., Soares-Filho, B., Machado-Leitao, R. F., & Rodrigues, H. O. (2019). BioDinamica: a toolkit for analyses of biodiversity and biogeography on the Dinamica-EGO modelling platform. PeerJ, 7, e7213 doi: 10.7717/peerj.7213
  93. Opdam, P. F. M., Verboom, J., & Pouwels, R. (2003). Landscape cohesion: an index for the conservation potential of landscapes for biodiversity. Landscape Ecology, 18, 113–126. doi: 10.1023/A:1024429715253
  94. Parks, S. A., McKelvey, K. S., & Schwartz, M. K. (2013). Effects of weighting schemes on the identification of wildlife corridors generated with least-cost methods. Conservation Biology, 27(1), 145–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01929.x
  95. Pettorelli, N., Safi, K., & Turner, W. (2014). Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences, 369(1643), 20130190. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0190.
  96. Piquer-Rodríguez, M., Kuemmerle, T., & Alcaraz-Segura, D. (2012). Future land use effects on the connectivity of protected area networks in southeastern Spain. Journal for Nature Conservation, 20(6), 326–336. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2012.07.001
  97. Pound, M. J., & Salzmann, U. (2017). Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition. Scientific Reports, 7, 43386. doi: 10.1038/srep43386
  98. Quesada, M., Sanchez–Azofeifa, G. A., Alvarez–Añorve M., Stoner, K. E., Avila–Cabadilla, L., Calvo–Alvarado, J., Castillo A., Espírito–Santo, M. M., Fagundes, M., Fernandes, G.W., Gamonb, J., Lopezaraiza-Mikel, M., Lawrence, D., Cerdeira-Morellato, L.D., Powers, J. S., Neves, F. S., Rosas-Guerrero, V., Sayago, R., & Sanchez-Montoya, G. 2009. Succession and management of tropical dry forests in the Americas: Review and new perspectives. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(6), 1014–1024. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.06.023
  99. Santos, M. (2010). Por una outra globalização: do pensamento único á consciéncia universal. Rio de Janeiro: Record.
  100. Sarukhán, J. (2007). Editorial. Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México, 80 (Suplemento), 7-10.
  101. Saura, S., Bastin, L., Battistella, L., Mandrici, A. & Dubois, G. (2017). Protected areas in the world's ecoregions: how well connected are they? Ecological Indicators, 76, 144-158. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.12.047
  102. Saura, S., Bertzky, B., Bastin, L., Battistella, L., Mandrici, A., & Dubois, G. (2019). Global trends in protected area connectivity from 2010 to 2018. Biological Conservation, 238, 108183. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.07.028
  103. Sayer, J., Sunderland, T., Ghazoul, J., Pfund, J. L., Sheil, D., Meijaard, E., & Buck, L. E. (2013). Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses. PNAS, 110(21), 8349-8356. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210595110
  104. Smith, A.C., Fahrig, L., & Francis, C. M. (2011). Landscape size affects the relative importance of habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and matrix quality on forest birds. Ecography, 34(1), 103-113. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06201.x
  105. Sodhi, N. S., Koh, L.P., Brook, B. W., & Ng, P. K. (2004). Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19(12), 654-660. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.09.006
  106. Sohoulande, D. D. C. (2017). Spectrum of climate change and streamflow alteration at a watershed scale. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76, 653. doi: 10.1007/s12665-017-7006-x
  107. Stoufíer, P. C. & Bierregaard, R. O. (1995). Effects of forest fragmentation on understory hummingbirds in Amazonian Brazil. Conservation Biology, 9(5), 1085-1094.
  108. Stuart, S. N., Chanson, J. S., Cox, N. A., Young, B. E., Rodrigues, A. S. L., Fischman, D. L. & Waller, R. W. (2004). Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306(5702), 1783–1786. doi: 10.1126/science.1103538
  109. Suding, K. N., Gross, K. L., & Houseman, G. R. (2004). Alternative states and positive feedbacks in restoration ecology. Trends in Ecolology & Evolution, 19(1), 46–53. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2003.10.005
  110. Suding, K., Higgs, E., Palmer, M., Callicott, J. B., Anderson, C. B., Baker, M., & Schwartz, K. Z. S. (2015). Committing to ecological restoration. Science, 348(5235), 638- 640. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4216
  111. Summers, D. M., Bryan, B. A., Crossman, N. D., & Meyer, W. S. (2012). Species vulnerability to climate change: impacts on spatial conservation priorities and species representation. Global Change. Biology, 18(7), 2335–2348. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02700.x
  112. Tambosi, L. R., & Metzger, J. P. (2013). A framework for setting local restoration priorities based on landscape context. Natureza & Conservação, 11(2), 152–157. doi: 10.4322/natcon.2013.024
  113. Taylor, P. D., Fahrig, L., Henein, K., & Merriam, G. (1993). Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos, 68(3), 571-573. doi: 10.2307/3544927
  114. Taylor, P.D., Fahrig, L., With, K. A. (2006). Landscape connectivity: A return to the basics. En Crooks, K. R. & M. Sanjayan, (Eds.), Connectivity conservation (29-43). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  115. Tischendorf, L., & Fahrig, L. (2000). On the usage and measurement of landscape connectivity. Oikos, 90(1), 7–19. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2000.900102.x
  116. Townshend, J. R., Masek, J. G., Huang, C., Vermote, E. F., Gao, F., Channan, S., Sexton, J.O., Feng, M., Narasimhan, R., Kim, D., Song, K., Song, D., Song, X. P., Noojipaday, P., Tan, B., & Hansen, M. C. (2012). Global characterization and monitoring of forest cover using Landsat data: opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Digital Earth, 5(5), 373-397. doi: 10.1080/17538947.2012.713190
  117. Turner, M., & Gardner, R. (1990). Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Nueva York: Springer-Verlag.
  118. Varga-Lopes, E., Mendonça, B. L., Dos Santos, J., Augusto, Marcelo., López-Iborra, G., & Dos Anjos, M. L. (2016). Effects of connectivity on the forest bird communities of adjacent fragmented landscapes. Ardeola, 63(2), 279-293. doi: 10.13157/arla.63.2.2016.ra4
  119. Vos, C., Berry, P., Opdam, P., Baveco, H., Nijhof, B., O'hanley, J., Bell, C., & Kuipers, H. (2008). Adapting landscapes to climate change: examples of climate-proof ecosystem networks and priority adaptation zones. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(6), 1722-1731. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01569.x
  120. Wan, H., Rasch, P. J., Zhang, K., Qian, Y., Yan, H., & Zhao, C. (2014). Short ensembles: An efficient method for discerning climate-relevant sensitivities in atmospheric general circulation models. Geoscientifc Model Development, 7, 1961–1977. doi: 10.5194/gmd-7-1961-2014.
  121. Wikelski, M., & Tertitski, G. (2016). Living sentinels for climate change effects. Science, 352(6287), 775–776. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf6544
  122. Wright, J. S. (2005). Tropical forests in a changing Environment. Ecology and Evolution, 20(10), 553-560. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.07.009
  123. Wu, X., Lu, Y., Zhou, S., Chen, L., & Xu, B. (2016). Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation. Environment International, 86, 14–23. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.007
  124. Zacarias, D., Loyola, R. (2018). Distribution modelling and multi-scale landscape connectivity highlight important areas for the conservation of savannah elephants. Biological Conservation, 224, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.05.014
  125. Zeller, K., McGarigal, K., & Whiteley, A. (2012). Estimating landscape resistance to movement: a review. Landscape Ecology, 27, 777–797. doi: 10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0
  126. Zimbres, B., Peres, C.A., & Machado, R. B. (2016). Terrestrial mammal responses to habitat structure and quality of remnant riparian forests in an Amazonian cattle-ranching landscape. Biological Conservation, 206, 283-292. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.11.033