Vol. 27 Núm. 1 (2021): Primavera 2021
Artículos Científicos

Condición de copa de bosques y selvas de México: Análisis 2014

Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales
Colegio de Postgraduados
Biografía
Luz De Lourdes Saavedra-Romero
Colegio de Postgraduados
Biografía
Yolanda Franco-Islas
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
Biografía
Jaime Villa-Castillo
Consultor independiente
David Antonio Quiroz-Reygadas
Consultor independiente

Publicado 2021-04-21

Palabras clave

  • categorías de salud,
  • densidad de copa,
  • indicador de salud forestal,
  • muerte regresiva,
  • transparencia de follaje.
  • health categories,
  • crown density,
  • forest health indicators,
  • crown dieback,
  • foliage transparency

Resumen

Se presenta el análisis de los datos colectados en 2014 por el Inventario Nacional Forestal y de Suelos (INFyS), para el indicador de salud forestal denominado condición de copa, el cual incluyó 88 162 árboles localizados en 1443 conglomerados. Las variables analizadas fueron: proporción de copa viva (Pcv), densidad de copa (DenC), transparencia de follaje (TraF) y muerte regresiva (Mreg), para las que se obtuvieron estadísticos descriptivos por géneros combinados, por grupo (coníferas y latifoliadas) y por género. También, se categorizó su salud con base en umbrales propuestos en estudios previos. Los valores promedio de Pcv, DenC, TraF, Mreg para géneros combinados fueron 35.9%, 44.4%, 50.6% y 2.6%, respectivamente, mientras que para latifoliadas fueron de forma recíproca 32.7%, 44.2%, 50.5% y 2.7% y, en coníferas, fueron 47.5%, 46.2%, 51.1% y 1.2%. Se presentan promedios para 18 géneros con n ≥ 1000. En cuanto a la salud, más de 50% de los árboles presentó una Pcv en la categoría pobre, 27.9% una DenC en la misma categoría, 60.26% una TraF severa y menos de 1%, una Mreg severa. Cincuenta y cuatro punto dos de cada cien de las latifoliadas presentaron Pcv pobre y 67% de las coníferas una TraF severa. Nayarit y Jalisco presentaron el arbolado de menor calidad de copas. Es prioritario generar estándares de copa propios, capacitar a las brigadas de campo y realizar las mediciones en la época apropiada. Este es el primer estudio sobre el indicador condición de copa en bosques y selvas de México, producto del esfuerzo del INFyS y la Gerencia de Sanidad de la Comisión Nacional Forestal.

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