Vol. 26 Núm. 3 (2020): Otoño 2020
Revisiones bibliográficas

Evaluación de la resiliencia ecológica de los bosques tropicales secos: una aproximación multiescalar

Francisco Guerra Martínez
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Biografía
Arturo García Romero
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Biografía
Miguel Angel Martínez Morales
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
Biografía

Publicado 2020-11-27

Palabras clave

  • recuperación,
  • resistencia,
  • cambio de cobertura y uso del suelo,
  • percepción remota,
  • estructura

Resumen

La resiliencia ecológica está integrada por dos componentes: resistencia y recuperación. En áreas de bosque tropical seco (BTS) donde se elimina la vegetación para establecer actividades agrícolas, la resistencia de la vegetación a este disturbio antrópico es irrelevante. Sin embargo, una vez que se abandonan los campos agrícolas, los sitios inician un proceso de recuperación de sus atributos ecológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un marco metodológico para la evaluación de la resiliencia ecológica de los BTS mediante la combinación secuencial de la percepción remota y muestreos en campo, considerando el marco conceptual de la resiliencia y la ecología del BTS. Se plantea que la evaluación de la resiliencia ecológica del BTS tenga las siguientes aproximaciones: (1) la primera incluye un análisis de la recuperación de los atributos del BTS (e. g., cobertura, altura) a nivel regional y de paisaje, mediante insumos de percepción remota (e. g., imágenes de satelite) que muestren el cambio de cobertura y uso del suelo; (2) después, el análisis requiere abordar la recuperación desde una perspectiva a nivel local que implica el análisis de las variables ecológicas más relevantes como la estructura, la diversidad y la función ecológica; (3) finalmente, a partir de los insumos a nivel local, es posible retornar a niveles de trabajo menos detallados (e. g., regional y paisaje) y modelar los datos obtenidos en campo mediante índices de vegetación. Este planteamiento permite evaluar la resiliencia ecológica de un ecosistema y las causas que la promueven a diferentes escalas espaciales.

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